transparency-md.1

TERMS OF REFERENCE

Research Consultancy

Review of the Decentralization Framework in the Maldives

Position title: Research Consultant

Research title: Review of Decentralization Framework in the Maldives

Expected period of commitment: approximately 8 weeks

Application deadline: 17th August 2016

Location: Malé, Maldives

 

  1. Organization Background

Transparency Maldives (TM) is a non-partisan organization that endeavors to be a constructive force in society by promoting collaboration and discussion on corruption, transparency and accountability. Our organization seeks to engage with stakeholders from all sectors (government, business, politics and civil society, among others) to raise awareness of corruption’s detrimental effects on development and society, improve transparency and accountability in governance, and eliminate corruption from the daily lives of people.

 

Transparency Maldives received formal government registration in 2007, and is the National Contact of Transparency International (TI) in the Maldives.

 

  1. Background to the Assignment

TM’s “Baaru” project (Strengthening local governance in the Maldives through capacity building local councils and empowering citizens for social accountability) is a 3-year project funded by the European Union (EU). The goal of the project is to strengthen local democracy and the decentralization system in the Maldives.

The passing of the new Constitution in 2008 and the enactment of the Decentralization Act in 2010 saw a considerable policy shift to devolve previously centralized power to local communities. However, policy discussions around the decentralization framework before and after the Decentralization Act came into force has been deeply divided along party lines, often at the cost of meaningful policy discussion. As a result, meaningful devolution of power and by extension, empowering of local island communities have not taken place.

Furthermore, the functioning of the local government system and the authority of councils are threatened by the increasing trends towards centralization. Following the passage of the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Act in 2015 and a number of procedural changes that have been observed through regulation and practice, there is limited understanding on how these changes affect local communities and the principles of decentralization of power.

One of the key activities under the project is to conduct a comprehensive review of the decentralization framework with a reflection of Maldives’ experience with decentralization in order to inform future policy conversations around decentralization and strengthen the local governance system in the Maldives.

  1. Purpose of the Assignment

TM is seeking the services of a research consultant to produce a comprehensive review of the decentralization framework. The review will reflect on the historical development of decentralization and the experience with decentralization since 2010, examine the legal, structural and practical challenges in local governance, and provide policy recommendations for reform and strengthening the decentralization framework.

 

This review will be a key advocacy and policy tool at the regional workshops and annual symposiums on local governance. This review will further help inform the creation of the Local Councils Associations or Union that will be established during the project period. This association or union will serve as a platform to organize local governments and mobilize local councils for collective action in order to positively influence policy decisions concerning local governance. A communications and advocacy plan comprising of a press conference, appearance on current affairs programs, social media and shareable graphics will also be rolled out to disseminate the findings and recommendations of the review to the public. The consultant will help identify target audiences and develop key messages for each.

 

  1. Responsibilities of the consultant:

The consultant will be expected to work closely with the Senior Project Coordinator for this project to:

  • Undertake a desk review of existing literature pertaining to decentralization in the Maldives.
  • Provide a methodology for the review.
  • Identify key stakeholders and conduct interviews and focus group discussions with relevant stakeholders
  • Compile data and information on legal, structural, procedural changes related to decentralization and local governance and practical challenges to local governance
  • Write the comprehensive review report
  • Prepare a summary of the report with recommendations
  • Produce a communications and advocacy plan to disseminate the findings of the review
  • Facilitate a multi-stakeholder validation workshop to validate the findings of the report

 

  1. Deliverables
  • Submit a timeline for the deliverables, not exceeding 8 weeks.
  • Detailed document with proposed methodology and report outline, along with a list of stakeholders to be interviewed.
  • Report reviewing the legal and structure of decentralization and procedural changes affecting the decentralization system and practical challenges to local governance together with recommendations for policy and procedural reform based on best practices.
  • Presentation to TM staff on the findings of the review.
  • Conduct a stakeholder workshop to disseminate findings.
  • Summary of the review report with recommendations.
  • Communications and advocacy plan to disseminate the findings of the report.

 

  1. Duration of the Assignment: Eight (8) weeks, with expected start date in August 2017. The consultant must be based in Malé, Maldives for the duration of the assignment.

 

  1. Reporting

The Consultant will work closely with and report to the Senior Project Coordinator at TM throughout the assignment.

  1. Required Competencies
  2. Master’s degree in a social science or related field, political science or public policy will be an advantage
  3. Proven expertise in political-institutional analysis with particularly strong knowledge of local governance and decentralization.
  4. Familiarity with concepts of good governance including transparency, accountability, and anti-corruption.
  5. Familiarity with quantitative and qualitative research methodologies
  6. Ability to research, analyze and synthesize information for a non-technical audience.
  7. Proven ability to clearly and concisely express ideas and concepts in written and oral form.
  8. Excellent spoken and written English, knowledge of Dhivehi will be an advantage
  9. Excellent ability to set priorities and manage time.

 

TM will evaluate applications based on the following criteria:

  • Demonstrated familiarity with key concepts of decentralization and good governance 30%
  • Budget 25%
  • Qualification of key personnel                                     15%
  • Organizational/Individual relevant experience 15%
  • Proposed Timeline 15%

 

 

Closing date for applications: 04: 30pm Thursday, 17th August 2016.

 

Application and selection procedures: Interested applicants should submit an email to Ali Shareef (ali.shareef@transparencymaldives.org). The subject line must read “Research Consultancy – Decentralization Review”.

 

The content of the application must include the following:

 

  • A summary of relevant experience (attach a brief CV, providing evidence that you are qualified to undertake this assignment).
  • At least two examples of similar assignments that you have undertaken, preferably in the Maldives, over the past 5 years.
  • Proposed charges (including estimates of consulting days and expenses)
  • Two relevant references.

 

Applications must be in English. Only short-listed candidates will be contacted.

 

The contract will be awarded on a lump sum/fixed cost basis. The application should state the bid amount (in MRF) for undertaking the work.

 

Transparency Maldives retains the right to reject any or all of the applications and/or to enter into additional negotiations with one or more of the tendering parties to help define the exact scope of the work and deliverables to be undertaken.

 

 

 

An information session will be held on Sunday, 13th August 2017 @3:00 pm

 

Venue:

Transparency Maldives

G. Liverpool North Shabnam Magu (road opposite the mosque in front of Galolhu Stadium)

Phone: 330 4017

 

RSVP

please email Ali Shareef (ali.shareef@transparencymaldives.org) with the subject “Info Session”

 

 

View/Download TOR here TOR_Review of Decentralization Framework – infosessionrevised and deadline extended

transparency-md.1

TERMS OF REFERENCE

Local Governance Training Manual Development Consultant

Position title: Consultant – Development of Governance Training Manual Expected period of commitment: 05 Weeks
Application deadline: 13th August 2017
Location: Male’, Maldives

1. Organization Background

Transparency Maldives (TM) is a non-partisan organization that endeavors to be a constructive force in society by promoting collaboration and discussion on corruption, transparency and accountability. Our organization seeks to engage with stakeholders from all sectors (government, business, politics and civil society, among others) to raise awareness of corruption’s detrimental effects on development and society, improve transparency and accountability in governance, and eliminate corruption from the daily lives of people.

Transparency Maldives received formal government registration in 2007, and is the National Contact of Transparency International (TI) in the Maldives.

2. Background to the Assignment

TM’s “Baaru” project (Strengthening local governance in the Maldives through capacity building local councils and empowering citizens for social accountability) is a 3-year project funded by the European Union (EU). The goal of the project is to strengthen local democracy and the decentralization system in the Maldives.

Following the contentious 2013/2014 electoral cycle in the Maldives, the marked decline in the local democratic culture, and the lack of political accountability at both the national and local level, public trust in democratic institutions have decreased and cynicism and disillusionment with democracy and the political status quo has increased. For the long-term viability of democracy in the Maldives, a multi-pronged approach is now needed to ensure a local democratic culture, an empowered citizenry, and an open and inclusive local governance system.

The broader objective of this programme is to support and strengthen local governance systems using a multi- pronged focus on local government authorities and citizens to deepen democracy and enhance citizen participation in democratic processes to empower citizens for social accountability. The project aims to strengthen trust and dialogue between citizens and local governments, and empower local governments to act as catalysts for development and positive change in the communities they serve.

As one of its key components, this project focuses on capacity building local governments through trainings to equip them with knowledge and tools to improve community engagement and service provision. In this regard, we will be conducting a 3-day training for the newly elected councilors.

3. Purpose of the Assignment

Following the 2017 Local Council Elections, a new pool of councilors have been elected to local councils and there are limited institutions to provide training for these newly elected local councilors. Although the Local Government Authority (LGA) conducts orientation programs for newly elected local councilors there is room for a more comprehensive training focusing on leadership, good governance standards and practices, budgeting, island

development planning, community participation and resource mobilization. This would serve to complement the ongoing orientation program provided by the LGA.

TM is seeking the services of a consultant to produce a comprehensive training manual for local councilors focussing on leadership, good governance standards and practices, budgeting, island development planning, community participation and resource mobilization and anti-corruption, and complement the training developed by the LGA to train the newly elected batch of local councilors.

The consultant is expected to assess the existing training materials and the decentralization framework, and develop a training manual for local councilors’ training. The training manual will consist of three main components: (1) the trainer’s manual, (2) the handbook for local councilors, and (3) the training assessment toolkit.

4. Responsibilities of the consultant

The Consultant will be expected to:

  • Undertake a desk review of existing literature pertaining to local governance and trainings in the country.
  • Identify key stakeholders and conduct interviews with stakeholders to identify training needs and gaps in existing trainings.
  • Develop a training manual for master trainers which would include presentations, session outlines, notes and background reading.
  • Develop a handbook for local councilors to complement existing resources, with specific focus on good governance, anti-corruption and participatory development planning and implementation.
  • Develop an assessment toolkit, which includes (1) an evaluation to be administered both at the beginning and end of trainings to measure the impact of training and (2) data analysis tool to analyze data, for the Training of Trainers (ToT) and the trainings for councilors.
  • Conduct ToT for master trainers.
  • Collate feedback from the participants of the ToT and finalize training manual and local councilors’ handbook.

5. Deliverables

  1. Submit a timeline for the deliverables, not exceeding 5 weeks (in English or Dhivehi).
  2. A 5-page brief outlining the training areas, and how it complements existing resources in the field (in English or Dhivehi).
  3. Produce and deliver a final training manual (in Dhivehi).
  4. Develop the local councilor’s handbook (in Dhivehi).
  5. Conduct a ToT based on the training manual.
  6. Develop and deliver an assessment and data collection toolkit for the training.

6. Duration of the Assignment

Five (5) weeks, with expected start date in August 2017. The consultant must be based in Malé, Maldives for the duration of the assignment.

7. Reporting

The Consultant will work closely with and report to the Senior Project Coordinator at TM throughout the assignment.

8. Required Competencies

  1. Bachelor’s or a Master’s degree in a social sciences or related field.
  2. Provenabilitytoclearlyandconciselyexpressideasandconceptsinwrittenandoralform.
  3. Familiarity with concepts of good governance including transparency, accountability and anti-corruption.
  4. Ability to research, analyze and synthesize information.
  5. Experience in developing training programmes for adults.
  6. Knowledge of decentralization framework and issues in the Maldivian context.
  7. Excellent spoken and written English and Dhivehi.
  8. Excellent ability to set priorities and manage time.
  9. Excellent facilitation skills

Closing date for applications: 04:30pm Sunday, 13th August 2017.

Application and selection procedures: Interested applicants should submit an email to Shifu Omar (shifu@transparencymaldives.org). The subject line must read “Local Governance Training Manual Development Consultancy”. The content of the application should not be longer than 5 pages and must include the following:

  • A summary of relevant experience (attach a brief CV, providing evidence that you are qualified to undertake this assignment).
  • At least two examples of similar assignments that you have undertaken, preferably in the Maldives, over the past 5 years.
  • Proposed Charges (including estimates of consulting days and expenses)
  • Two relevant references.
  • Demonstrated fluency in English and Dhivehi. TM will evaluate applications based on the following criteria:
  • Budget 25%
  • Qualification of key personnel 25%
  • Demonstrated familiarity with key concepts of decentralization and good governance 20%
  •  Organizational or individual relevant experience 15%
  • Proposed Timeline 15%

Applications

can be in English or in Dhivehi. Only short-listed candidates will be contacted.

The contract will be awarded on a lump sum/fixed cost basis, payable upon completion of deliverables. The application should state the bid amount (in MRF) for undertaking the work.

Transparency Maldives retains the right to reject any or all of the applications and/or to enter into additional negotiations with one or more of the tendering parties to help define the exact scope of the work and deliverables to be undertaken.

View/Download the TOR here

transparency-md.1

TERMS OF REFERENCE 

Research Consultancy

Review of the Decentralization Framework in the Maldives

Position title: Research Consultant

Research title: Review of Decentralization Framework in the Maldives

Expected period of commitment: approximately 8 weeks

Application deadline: 15th August 2016

Location: Malé, Maldives

 

  1. Organization Background

Transparency Maldives (TM) is a non-partisan organization that endeavors to be a constructive force in society by promoting collaboration and discussion on corruption, transparency and accountability. Our organization seeks to engage with stakeholders from all sectors (government, business, politics and civil society, among others) to raise awareness of corruption’s detrimental effects on development and society, improve transparency and accountability in governance, and eliminate corruption from the daily lives of people.

 

Transparency Maldives received formal government registration in 2007, and is the National Contact of Transparency International (TI) in the Maldives.

 

  1. Background to the Assignment

TM’s “Baaru” project (Strengthening local governance in the Maldives through capacity building local councils and empowering citizens for social accountability) is a 3-year project funded by the European Union (EU). The goal of the project is to strengthen local democracy and the decentralization system in the Maldives.

The passing of the new Constitution in 2008 and the enactment of the Decentralization Act in 2010 saw a considerable policy shift to devolve previously centralized power to local communities. However, policy discussions around the decentralization framework before and after the Decentralization Act came into force has been deeply divided along party lines, often at the cost of meaningful policy discussion. As a result, meaningful devolution of power and by extension, empowering of local island communities have not taken place.

Furthermore, the functioning of the local government system and the authority of councils are threatened by the increasing trends towards centralization. Following the passage of the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Act in 2015 and a number of procedural changes that have been observed through regulation and practice, there is limited understanding on how these changes affect local communities and the principles of decentralization of power.

One of the key activities under the project is to conduct a comprehensive review of the decentralization framework with a reflection of Maldives’ experience with decentralization in order to inform future policy conversations around decentralization and strengthen the local governance system in the Maldives.

  1. Purpose of the Assignment

TM is seeking the services of a research consultant to produce a comprehensive review of the decentralization framework. The review will reflect on the historical development of decentralization and the experience with decentralization since 2010, examine the legal, structural and practical challenges in local governance, and provide policy recommendations for reform and strengthening the decentralization framework.

 

This review will be a key advocacy and policy tool at the regional workshops and annual symposiums on local governance. This review will further help inform the creation of the Local Councils Associations or Union that will be established during the project period. This association or union will serve as a platform to organize local governments and mobilize local councils for collective action in order to positively influence policy decisions concerning local governance. A communications and advocacy plan comprising of a press conference, appearance on current affairs programs, social media and shareable graphics will also be rolled out to disseminate the findings and recommendations of the review to the public. The consultant will help identify target audiences and develop key messages for each.

 

  1. Responsibilities of the consultant:

The consultant will be expected to work closely with the Senior Project Coordinator for this project to:

  • Undertake a desk review of existing literature pertaining to decentralization in the Maldives.
  • Provide a methodology for the review.
  • Identify key stakeholders and conduct interviews and focus group discussions with relevant stakeholders
  • Compile data and information on legal, structural, procedural changes related to decentralization and local governance and practical challenges to local governance
  • Write the comprehensive review report
  • Prepare a summary of the report with recommendations
  • Produce a communications and advocacy plan to disseminate the findings of the review
  • Facilitate a multi-stakeholder validation workshop to validate the findings of the report

 

  1. Deliverables
  • Submit a timeline for the deliverables, not exceeding 8 weeks.
  • Detailed document with proposed methodology and report outline, along with a list of stakeholders to be interviewed.
  • Report reviewing the legal and structure of decentralization and procedural changes affecting the decentralization system and practical challenges to local governance together with recommendations for policy and procedural reform based on best practices.
  • Presentation to TM staff on the findings of the review.
  • Conduct a stakeholder workshop to disseminate findings.
  • Summary of the review report with recommendations.
  • Communications and advocacy plan to disseminate the findings of the report.

 

  1. Duration of the Assignment: Eight (8) weeks, with expected start date in August 2017. The consultant must be based in Malé, Maldives for the duration of the assignment.

 

  1. Reporting

The Consultant will work closely with and report to the Senior Project Coordinator at TM throughout the assignment.

8. Required Competencies

  • Master’s degree in a social science or related field, political science or public policy will be an advantage
  • Proven expertise in political-institutional analysis with particularly strong knowledge of local governance and decentralization.
  • Familiarity with concepts of good governance including transparency, accountability, and anti-corruption.
  • Familiarity with quantitative and qualitative research methodologies
  • Ability to research, analyze and synthesize information for a non-technical audience.
  • Proven ability to clearly and concisely express ideas and concepts in written and oral form.
  • Excellent spoken and written English, knowledge of Dhivehi will be an advantage
  • Excellent ability to set priorities and manage time.

 

TM will evaluate applications based on the following criteria:

  • Demonstrated familiarity with key concepts of decentralization and good governance 30%
  • Budget 25%
  • Qualification of key personnel 15%
  • Organizational/Individual relevant experience 15%
  • Proposed Timeline 15%

 

 

Closing date for applications: 04: 30pm Tuesday, 15th August 2016.

Application and selection procedures: Interested applicants should submit an email to Ali Shareef (alishareef@transparencymaldives.org). The subject line must read “Research Consultancy – Decentralization Review”.

 

The content of the application must include the following:

  • A summary of relevant experience (attach a brief CV, providing evidence that you are qualified to undertake this assignment).
  • At least two examples of similar assignments that you have undertaken, preferably in the Maldives, over the past 5 years.
  • Proposed charges (including estimates of consulting days and expenses)
  • Two relevant references.

 

Applications must be in English. Only short-listed candidates will be contacted.

The contract will be awarded on a lump sum/fixed cost basis. The application should state the bid amount (in MRF) for undertaking the work.

Transparency Maldives retains the right to reject any or all of the applications and/or to enter into additional negotiations with one or more of the tendering parties to help define the exact scope of the work and deliverables to be undertaken.

 

 

 

An information session will be held on Sunday, 6th August 2017 @3:00 pm

 

Venue:

Transparency Maldives

G. Liverpool North Shabnam Magu (road opposite the mosque in front of Galolhu Stadium)

Phone: 330 4017

RSVP

please email Ali Shareef (ali.shareef@transparencymaldives.org) with the subject “Info Session”

 

 

View/Download the TOR here

transparency-md.1

Transparency Maldives strongly condemns  disproportionate use of force against the journalists of Raajje TV and Sangu TV by the Police during the coverage of protests organised by the opposition parties on Wednesday afternoon and evening outside MDP campaign center.

View/Download our Dhivehi press statement here

View/Download our English press statement here

transparency-md.1

TERMS OF REFERENCE
Editor for the Maldives Adaptation Finance Governance Standards study

Position title: Editor
Expected period of commitment: 12 working days
Number of pages: Approximately 55 pages
Application deadline: 14:00, 23rd July 2017

1. Organization Background

Transparency Maldives is a non-partisan organization that endeavors to be a constructive force in society by promoting collaboration and discussion on corruption, transparency and accountability. Transparency Maldives seeks to engage with stakeholders from all sectors (government, business, politics and civil society, among others) to raise awareness of corruption’s detrimental effects on development and society, improve transparency and accountability in governance, and eliminate corruption from the daily lives of people.

Transparency Maldives received formal government registration in 2007, and is the National Contact of Transparency International (TI) in the Maldives.

2. Background to the assignment

Transparency Maldives is undertaking a baseline study on Climate Adaptation Finance Governance Standards in the Maldives. The study has produced a baseline findings of the current good governance practice of the stakeholders in the Maldives with a set of recommended governance standards for climate adaptation finance to improve delivery of the finance to the poorest and most vulnerable, and better strategic use of funds to catalyze transformational change to a low carbon, climate resilient economy.

3. Purpose of the assignment

The aim of this assignment is to ensure the quality of the publication and TM is seeking the services of an editor to edit the complete draft report on Climate Adaptation Finance Governance Standards in the Maldives.

4. Deliverables

The Editor will be expected to work closely with the Senior Project Coordinator for this project to produce a thoroughly content edited draft of the Maldives Adaptation Finance Governance Standards study to a satisfactory quality. In addition to correcting syntactical errors, the Editor is also expected to rephrase where necessary to ensure narrative consistency clarity of prose and continuity of argument.

Timeline: The editor is expected to complete the work within 12 working days of commencing work.
Reporting procedure: The editor will report to Senior Project Coordinator of the Climate Integrity Project, Shaziya Ali (shaziya.ali@transparencymaldives.org) for any inquiries.

Note: Maximum no of pages to be edited: 55
5. Required Competencies

Minimum bachelors degree in in English or related field
Minimum 3 years experience in work involving writing and editing
Excellent command of the English Language
Ability to effectively grasp and incorporate comments from multiple authors to fit a defined publication style and format Climate Adaptation Finance Governance Standards in the Maldives.

6. Closing date for applications: Before 14.00, Monday, 23 July 2017

7. Application and selection procedures: Interested applicants should submit an email to Shaziya Ali (shaziya.ali@transparencymaldives.org).

The subject line must read “AGS study Editor”. The content of the application should not be longer than 5 pages and must include the following:

A summary of relevant experience (attach a brief CV, providing evidence that you are qualified to undertake this assignment).
Portfolio/examples of similar assignments that you have undertaken (two to three), preferably in the Maldives, over the past 3-5 years.
Proposed fees

Only short-listed candidates will be contacted for interviews.

The contract will be awarded on a fixed cost basis. The application should state the rate (in MVR) for per page. Transparency Maldives retains the right to reject any or all of the applications and/or to enter into additional negotiations with one or more of the tendering parties to help define the exact scope of the work and deliverables to be undertaken.

Download the ToR here.

transparency-md.1

A report by Transparency International (TI) shows that Maldives fails on key points in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 16. In the scorecard illustrating the report (to be launched shortly and of which 11 countries are included) Maldives scored: just 41% for Target 16.4 (which calls for significant reduction in illicit financial flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime);  a mere 33% for Target 16.5 (calling for substantial reduction in corruption and bribery in all their forms); and 81% for Target 16.10 (calling to ensure public access to information in accordance with national legislation and international agreements) 

TI_SDG_Scorecards_Maldives

Although it shows an encouraging score on some of the goals of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly those arising from access to information, Maldives fails on key issues. Much work needs to be done on asset recovery and fiscal transparency. Another worrying issue is the complete lack of protection for whistleblowers in the absence of a dedicated law and monitoring mechanisms that can insure support and safeguards for those who take the lead in alerting authorities and the public to corrupt activities. Transparency and integrity in public administration and public procurement is also far from satisfactory.

The Maldives National Progress Report submitted by the Government for the 2017 Voluntary National Review (VNR) at the High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) was published in June 2017. Referring to SDG 16, the report states that the Government of Maldives is “committed towards creating effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels.”

However, Maldives has recently made national and global headlines for how corruption is embedded and systemic in the country. The current anti-corruption landscape of the country is marred by lack of enforcement of existing laws, and lack of public awareness on corruption and political accountability. To eliminate corruption in Maldives and garner public confidence in the governance system, there needs to be genuine political will to fully enforce anti-corruption laws to stop the impunity enjoyed by the corrupt and to hold corrupt politicians accountable.

The scores are out of 100 show the strength (or weakness) of the legal framework that is currently in place in each area of the policy areas covered, based on the parallel reporting methodology. The scores are plotted on the bands as indicated in the key. There is a list of policy areas covered beneath the graphic and the score for each area is placed within a band depending on the score.

 The scores read clockwise, starting with the first listed policy area between noon and one o’clock. In an ideal world, the scores for all policy areas would sit in the outer-most green band.

 For instance, the scorecard starts with anti-money laundering legislation between noon and one o’clock. Maldives is found to have a generally good legal framework for anti-money laundering (81 per cent), largely in line with international best practice, although there is room for improvement.

 Progressing clockwise around the graphic, the next area is beneficial ownership, which scores 39 per cent, indicating considerable room for improvement. The remaining percentage scores relating to each policy area are displayed in clockwise order around the rest of the graphic. 

Disclaimer

Please note that the scorecards are an appraisal of the de jure situation and do not assess compliance with the legislative framework or the effectiveness of its implementation. The legal scorecard is intended to demonstrate areas at national level in which reform of the legislative and institutional framework is most urgently needed. 

Read more on Sustainable Development Goals here.

Read more on Goal 16 and its targets here.