Hussain Humaam was arrested for the murder of Raa. Ungoofaaru Member of Par l iament Afrasheem Ali, who was found murdered near his residence on the 8th of October 2012.

He was arrested as a suspect during the initial round of investigations during which he confessed to the crime. He was tried at the Criminal Court where he was found guilty of first-degree murder on January 2013 on the basis of the aforementioned confession, and also witness testimony and forensic evidence which, according to prosecutors, attested to his guilt and corroborates with his confession.

Humaam subsequently retracted his previous confession, stating that it had been made under duress following police intimidation and, furthermore, on the understanding that if he had confessed, prosecutors would not press for the death penalty. Whilst Humaam has stated that although he is responsible for much violent activity during his criminal past, he denies involvement in Afrasheem’s murder.

The case was subsequently appealed to the High Court. It should be noted that although Humaam did not appeal the verdict within the time period allowed to make an appeal, under regulations pertinent to the death penalty in the Maldives, the death sentence can only be implemented after all stages of appeal have been exhausted. Hence death sentences handed out by the Criminal Court will automatically be appealed to the High Court after the period of appeal ends. Corollarily, if death penalty verdicts are upheld at the High Court, such cases will then automatically be sent to the Supreme Court for the final stage of appeal.

The High Court upheld the verdict in December 2015 stating that Humaam had twice confessed, and that court guidelines do not allow one to retract confessions of that nature at a later date; they further iterated the Criminal Court ruling citing that the aforementioned witness testimony and forensic evidence corroborated with Humaam’s earlier confession.

Currently the case is at the final stage of appeal at the Supreme Court, which has already held preliminary hearings. Humaam’s lawyers are, as of this writing, requesting that the Supreme Court allow them more time to prepare a defence, as the High Court has not yet given them the case report elaborating on their verdict (this reasoning was dismissed by the SC on the understanding that the relevant report is available on the High Court website). If the Supreme Court upholds the verdict of the Criminal Court and the High Court and all of Dr. Afrasheem’s surviving relatives insist on the application of the death penalty, there is a significant possibility that the state will put Humaam to death.

View/download a PDF of the Case Study: Hussein Humaam sentenced in Afrasheem murder


The purpose of this governance update is to provide a very brief introduction to the historical development of the Maldivian Judiciary from the earliest recorded times up until the introduction of the new Constitution in 2008.

Prior to the country embracing Islam in 1153 A.D legal disputes were settled according to customary law (Fooruve Rudin). The King (Radun) was the highest authority on judicial matters and a council of nobles and religious functionaries would have advised him in settling legal disputes that arose between his subjects.

Following the Maldives’ conversion to Islam there was an attempt to impose a uniform system of Islamic Sharia across the country – often with visiting Arabic travellers being offered senior judicial posts on the assumption that their superior command of Arabic than locals would have made them more erudite on matters of religious law.

View/download the governance update on Ancient judiciary of the Maldives


This governance update intends to highlight the problematic issues arising from the existence of serious gaps in the Maldivian legislative framework. The aforementioned gaps chiefly refer to the lack of procedural legislation that would serve as a guide to all relevant officials with regard to the technical and administrative substance of dispensing justice, whilst also delineating the rights that any person accused of a crime is to be entitled to.

At the time that this governance update is being written there is currently no Criminal Procedure Code, Civil Procedure Code or an up to date Evidence Act in operation in the Maldives. As will be expounded in the following sections, the existence of these gaps are severely problematic as it leaves proper procedure to be interpreted at the discretion of individual judges, leaving considerable scope for inconsistency in how justice is applied.

This update will focus separately on each of the above mentioned elements and, after explaining what each of these are, provide some detail with regard to why the lack of each has a detrimental impact on the quality of justice available in Maldives. It is hoped that this update can shine a light on why ameliorating this issue should be treated as a matter of urgency in terms of strengthening the efficiency and integrity of the Maldivian justice system.

Read the governance update on Legislative gaps

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ތާރީޚް: 22 އޭޕްރިލް 2016

މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކާއި ގުޅިގެން ކުރާ ނޭދެވޭ އަސަރު ކުޑަކުރުމަށް މިދިޔަ އަހަރު ބޭއްވުނު ކޮޕް 21ގައި އެއްބަސްވެވުނު ޕެރިސް އެގްރީމަންޓްގައި ސޮއިކުރެއްވުމަށް ދުނިޔޭގެ ވެރިން އދ.ގެ މައިމަރުކަޒުގައި 22 އޭޕްރިލް 2016ގައި ބައްދަލުކުރިއެވެ. ޕެރިސް އެގްރީމަންޓަކީ ދުނިޔޭގެ ފިނިހޫނުމިނަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލު 2 ޑިގްރީއަށްވުރެ ދަށުގައި ހިފެހެއްޓުމަށްޓަކައި ދުނިޔޭގެ 190 ވުރެ ގިނަ ޤައުމުތަކުން އެކުގައި މަސައްކަތްކުރުމަށް އެއްބަސްވެ އެކުލަވައިލެވުނު އެގްރީމަންޓެކެވެ. މި އެގްރީމަންޓުގައި 120އަށް ގިނަ ޤައުމަކުން ސޮއިކުރި ނަމަވެސް ތަސްދީގުކޮށްފައި ވަރަށް މަދު ޤައުމަކުންނެވެ

މިމަދު ޤައުމުތަކުގެ ތެރޭގައި ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ ހިމެނޭކަމީ މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކުން ކުރާ ނޭދެވޭ އަސަރުން ރައްކާތެރިވުމަށް ރާއްޖޭއިން ކުރާ މަސައްކަތް އަންގައިދޭ މިސާލެކެވެ. މީގެ އިތުރުން މިއެގްރީމަންޓް އެކުލަވާލުމުގައި ކުދި ޤައުމުތައް ތަމްސީލުކުރާ އެއޯސިސްގެ ޗެއާރގެ ގޮތުން ދިވެހިރާއްޖެއިން ކުރި މަސައްކަތަކީވެސް މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކުން ކުރާ ނޭދެވޭ އަސަރު ދުނިޔޭގެ ސަމާލުކަމަށްގެނައުމަށް ރާއްޖެއިންކުރާ މަސައްކަތް ދައްކުވައިދޭކަމެކެވެ

މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކުން ކުރާ އަސަރުތަކުން ރައްކާތެރިވުމަށް ކުރާމާސައްކަތުގައި އެހީވުމަށް ތަރައްޤީވެފައިވާ ޤައުމުތަކުން 2020 ވަނަ އަހަރާއި ހަމައަށް ކޮންމެ އަހަރަކު 100 ބިލިއަން ޑޮލަޑު ދިނުމަށް ނިންމާފައިވާ އިރު، ޕެރިސް އެގްރިމަންޓަކީ މިނިންމި އަދަދުތައް ދިނުމަށާއި އަދި އެފައިސާ ލިބޭ ޤައުމުތަކުން ރަނގަޅުގޮތުގައި ޚަރަދުކުރުމަށް ބާރުއަޅައިދޭނެ އެގްރިމަންޓެކެވެ. ސަބަބަކީ ޕެރިސް އެގްރިމަންޓަކީ މީގެ ކުރިން އެކުލަވާލި މިފަދަ އެގްރީމަންޓްތަކާއި ޚިލާފަށް ޤާނޫނީ ބާރުލިބިފައިވާ އެގްރީމަންޓަކަށްވުމެވެ. އެހެންކަމުން ދުނިޔޭގެ ފިނިހޫނުމިން 2 ޑިގްރީއަށް ވުރެ މަށްޗަށް ދިޔަ ނުދީ ހިފެހެއްޓުމަށް ޤައުމުތަކުން ކުރާ މަސައްކަތާއި ޚަރަދުތަކާމެދު މިއެގްރީމަންޓްގެ ދަށުން ޖަވާބުދާރީ ވާންޖެހެއެވެ

މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކުން ކުރާ ނޭދެވޭ އަސަރުތަކުން ރައްކާތެރިވުމުގެ ހަރަކާތުގެ އެންމެ ކުރީ ސަފުގައި ހިމެނޭ ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ އަކީ އެ ބަދަލުތަކުގެ ސަބަބުން އެންމެ ބޮޑު ގެއްލުމެއް ލިބޭނެ އެއް ގައުމެވެ. އަދި މިއަސަރުތަކުން ރައްކާތެރިވުމަށްޓަކައި ބައިނަލްއަޤުވާމީ އެކިފަރާތްތަކުން، ލޯނާއި އެހީގެ ގޮތުގައި ގިނަ އަދަދެއްގެ ފައިސާ ލިބޭ އެއްޤައުމެވެ. 2011 އާއި 2013 އާއި ދެމެދު ދިވެހިރާއްޖެއިން ވަނީ މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކުގެ ނޭދެވޭ އަސަރުތަށް ކުޑަކުރުމާއި ތައްޔާރުވުމުގެ އެކި ކަންކަމަށް ދައުލަތުގެ ބަޖެޓުން 2.87 މިލިއަން ޑޮލަރު ޚަރަދުކޮށްފައެވެ. އަދި 2011 އިން 2017 އާއި ދެމެދު މިފަދަ އެހެނިހެން ހަރަކާތްތަކަށް ބޭރުގެ ފަރާތްތަކުން ލިބޭ އެހީ އާއި ލޯނުގެ ޒަރިއްޔާއިން 168.17 މިލިއަން ޑޮލަރު އިތުރަށް ހަރަދުކުރުމަށް ވަނީ ކަނޑައަޅާފައިއެވެ. އަދި މީގެ އިތުރުން ގްރީން ކްލައިމެޓް ފަންޑުން، ރައްކާތެރި ސާފުބޯފެން ފޯރުކޮށްދިނުމަށްޓަކައި 23 މިލިއަން ޑޮލަރުގެ އެހީ ވަނީ ލިބިފައެވެ. އަދި މިދިޔަ އަހަރު ޕެރިހުގައި ބޭއްވުނު ކޮޕް 21ގެ ހަވާސާ ހަރަކާތެއްގައި މޫސުމީ ބަދަލުން ދިވެހިރާއްޖެއަށް ކުރާ އަސަރުތަކުން ރައްކާތެރިވުމަށް 3.4 މިލިއަން ޑޮލަރު ދިނުމަށް އިޓަލީއިން ވަނީ ނިންމާފައެވެ. މިހާ ގިނަ އަދަދެއްގެ ފައިސާ ލިބިފައިވީހިނދު، މި ފައިސާ، އޭގެ އަސްލު ބޭނުމަށް ޚަރަދުކުރެވޭކަން ރައްޔިތުންނަށް އަންގައިދިނުމުގެ އިތުރުން، މި ފައިސާތައް ޚަރަދު ކުރުމުގައި ނަޒާހާތްތެރިކަމާއި ހާމަކަން ބޮޑު ސިޔާސަތަކެއް ގެންގުޅުމަކީ ޚަރަދުތައް ހިންގުމުގެ އޮނިގަނޑުމެދު ރައްޔިތުންގެ އިތުބާރު ބޮޑުވެ، ކުރާ މަސައްކަތުގައި ރައްޔިތުންގެ އެއްބާރުލުން ލިބިގެންދާނެ ކަމެކެވެ

ނަމަވެސް ހިތާމަޔާއި އެކު ފާހަގަކޮށްލަންޖެހޭކަމަކީ ރާއްޖޭގައި މިފަދަ ޚަރަދުތައް ހިންގުމުގެ އޮނިގަނޑުމެދު ސުވާލު އުފައްދަން ޖާގަ ލިބޭފަދަ ދަނޑިވަޅުތައް ވަރަށް އާންމުކޮށް ފެންނަމުންދާކަމެވެ. މީގެ އެންމެ ބޮޑު އެއް މިސާލަކީ 2014 ވަނައަހަރު މާލެއަށް ކުރިމަތިވި ފެނުގެ ދަތިކަން ނުވަތަ ’ވޯޓާ ކްރައިސިސް‘ އެވެ. 9 ދުވަސްވަންދެން ރާއްޖޭގެ އާބާދީގެ 1/3 ފެނަށްޖެހިފައިތިބެންޖެހުނު މިހާދިސާއަށްފަހު، މިހާދިސާއިން ލިބުނު ގެއްލުންތަކުން އަރައިގަތުމަށްޓަކައި 20 މިލިއަން ޑޮލަރު ބޭނުންވާކަމަށް ސަރުކާރުން ހާމަކުރިއެވެ. އަދި އާންމުންގެ ފަރާތުން މިފައިސާ ހޯދުމަށްޓަކައި އެހީއަށް (ޑޮނޭޝަންއަށް) އެދި ހުޅުވާލިއެވެ. މިހާދިސާއަށް 1 އަހަރަށްވުރެ ގިނަ ދުވަސްވެފައިވާއިރު، މިއަދާހަމައަށްވެސް މިދެންނެވުނު ބޮޑު އަދަދު އައީ ކިހިނެއް ކަމާއި މިހާތަނަށް މީގެތެރެއިން ލިބިފައިވަނީ ކިހާފައިސާއެއްކަން އަދި މިއީ ކޮންކަމަކަށް ޚަރަދުކުރަންކަން ހޯދި ފައިސާއެއްކަންވެސް ސާފުކޮށްދެވިފައެއްނުވެއެވެ. ރާއްޖޭގެ ތާރީޚުގައި ދުށް އެންމެ ބޮޑެތި ޚިޔާނާތާއި ކޮރަޕްޝަންގެ މައްސަލަތައް ފެންމަތިވެފައިވާ މިފަދަ ދަނޑިވަޅެއްގައި ކަންބޮޑުވުން އިތުރުކުރުވާ ކަމަކީ ރައްޔިތުންނަށް އެހީވުމަށް ދެވޭ ފައިސާއަށް ޚިޔާނާތްތެރިވާ ފަރާތްތަކުގެ މައްޗަށް ޝަރީއަތް ނުހިންގޭކަމެވެ. މީގެ އެއްހެއްކަކީ 2004 ވަނަ އަހަރު އައި ސުނާމީގެ ގެއްލުމުން އަރައިގަތުމަށްޓަކައި ރާއްޖެއަށް ލިބުނު އެހީގެ ފައސާގެތެރެއިން 1.6 މިލިއަން ޑޮލަރަށް ޚިޔާނާތްތެރިވި ފަރާތްތައްވެސް އެއްވެސްކަހަލަ ޝަރީޢަތެއް ނުކުރެވި މިނިވަންކަމާއި އެކު ސަރުކާރުގެ މަތީ ފެންވަރުގެ މަޤާމުތަކުގައި ތިބުމެވެ

ޤައުމުގެ ޙާލަތު މިހެން އޮތުމުގެ ސަބަބުން މިއަހަރުގެ އާރތު ޑޭ (22 އޭޕްރިލް) އާއި ދިމާކޮށް ސޮއިކުރެވުނު އެގްރީމަންޓުންވެސް މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުން އެންމެ ބޮޑަށް އަސަރުކުރުވާފައިވާ އަދި އަސަރުކުރާނެ އާންމު ރައްޔިތުންނަށް އެދެވޭ ބަދަލެއް ލިބިދާނެކަމާމެދު ސުވާލު އުފެދެއެވެ. އެހެންކަމުން، މާޒީގައި ކަންހިނގާފައިވާ ގޮތުން އިބުރަތް ހާސިލުކޮށްގެން ރައްޔިތުންގެ އިތުބާރު ލިބޭފަދަ ގޮތަކަށް މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކުން ރައްކާތެރިވުމަށް ރާއްޖެއަށް ލިބޭފައިސާ ޚަރަދު ކުރުމަށް ސަރުކާރަށް ގޮވާލަމެވެ. މިގޮތުން، ފައިސާ ޚަރަދު ކުރުމުގަޔާއި ޕްރޮޖެކްޓްތައް ހިންގުމުގައި ތިރީގައިވާ ކަންކަމަށް އިސްކަން ދިނުމަށް މިޖަމްޢިއްޔާއިން އިލްތިމާސްކޮށް ގޮވާލަމެވެ

އަމިއްލައަށް އިސްނަގައިގެން މަޢުލޫމާތު ހާމަކުރުން

2013 ވަނަ އަހަރު ޓްރާންސްޕޭރެންސީ މޯލްޑިވްސް އިން ކުރިއަށް ގެންގޮސްފައިވާ، މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކާ ގުޅިގެން ރާއްޖޭގައި ކުރެވޭ ޚަރަދުތައް ހިންގުމުގެ އޮނިގަނޑާބެހޭ ދިރާސާ (ކްލައިމެޓް ފައިނޭންސް ގަވަރނެންސް އެސެސްމެންޓް)ގައި ފާހަގަ ކޮށްފައިވާ އެއް މައްސަލައަކީ، މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކާ ގުޅިގެން ހިންގޭ މަޝްރޫއު ތަކާ ބެހޭ މަޢުލޫމާތު އެއްތާކަށް އެއްކުރެވި، ފަސޭހައިން ލިބޭނެ ގޮތެއް ނެތުމެވެ. މަޝްރޫތައް ހިންގެނީ ކޮން ތަނެއްގައި، ކޮން ބޭނުމަކަށް އަދި ކޮން ފަރާތަކުން ފައިސާދީގެންކަން އިނގޭނެ މައި ޑޭޓާބޭސްއެއް އެކުލަވާލެވިފައި އެއް ނުވުމެވެ. މިގޮތަށް މި މަޢުލޫމާތު ލިބެން ނެތުމުގެ ސަބަބުން މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކާ ގުޅިގެން ކުރާ ޚަރަދުތައް ކުރަނީ އެންމެ އެކަށީގެންވާ ގޮތުގައިތޯ ބަލާ މޮނިޓަރ ކުރުމަށް މަދަނީ މުޖުތަމަޢުއަށާއި އާއްމުންނަށް އުނދަގޫވެއެވެ. 2014 ވަނަ އަހަރު މަޢުލޫމާތު ހޯދާ ލިބިގަތުމާބެހޭ ޤާނޫނު ފާސްވެފައި ވީނަމަވެސް، ކަމާ ގުޅުން ހުރި އިދާރާތަކުން އަމިއްލަ އިސްނެގުމަށް މިފަދަ މަޢުލޫމާތު އާންމު ނުކުރުމުގެ ސަބަބުންނާއި، އެފަރާތްތަކުން މަޢުލޫމާތު ހޯދުމުގައި ހުރި އިދާރީ ގޮންޖެހުންތަކުގެ ސަބަބުން މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކާ ގުޅިގެން ހިންގޭ މަޝްރޫއުތަކާ ބެހޭ މަޢުލޫމާތު ލިބިގަތުމުގައި އަދިވެސް ދަތިތަކެއް އެބަހުއްޓެވެ. އެހެންކަމުން، ރައްޔިތުންނަށް މިކަމުގައި އެކަށީގެންވާ މިންވަރަށް ބައިވެރިވުމަށާއި ފާރަވެރިވުމަށް ހުޅުވާލެވިފައިވާ މާޙައުލެއް ބިމާކުރުމަށްޓަކައި އަމިއްލައަށް އިސްނަގައިގެން މަޢުލޫމާތު ހާމަކުރުމުގެ ސަޤާފަތެއް ގެންގުޅެން ފަށަން އެބަޖެހެއެވެ

ނިންމުންތައް ނިންމުމުގައި ހާމަކަން ބޮޑު ސިޔާސަތެއް ގެންގުޅުން

މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކާ ގުޅިގެން ރާއްޖޭގައި ކުރެވޭ ޚަރަދުތައް ހިންގުމުގެ އޮނިގަނޑާއިމެދު ދެން އޮތް އެންމެ ބޮޑު ކަންބޮޑުވުމަކީ ކަންކަން ނިންމުމުގައި ހާމަކަން ކުޑަވުމެވެ. މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކާ ގުޅިގެން ރާއްޖެއަށް ލިބޭ އެހީ އާއި އެހެނިހެން ފައިސާ ޚަރަދު ކުރުމާ ބެހޭ ނިންމުންތައް ނިންމަނީ ރައީސް ޔާމީން އެކުލަވާލައްވާފައިވާ އިކޮނޮމިކް އެންޑް ޔޫތް ކައުންސިލް ފަދަ ސަރުކާރުގެ މަތީ ގުނަވަންތަކުން ކަމުގައި ވީނަމަވެސް، މިގުނަވަންތަކުން ނިންމުންތައް ނިންމަނީ ކިހިނެއްކަން، އަދި އެ ނިންމުންތަކަކީ މިހާރު އަމަލުކުރެވެމުންދާ މޫސުމާ ބެހޭ ސިޔާސަތުތަކާ އެއްގޮތްވާ ނިންމުންތަކެއްކަން ނުވަތަ ނޫންކަން މެދު އެއްވެސް މަޢުލޫމާތެއް ލިބޭކަށް ނުހުރެއެވެ. މީގެ އިތުރުން މޫސުމަށް އަންނަބަދަލުތަކާ ބެހޭގޮތުން ލަފާ ދިނުމަށްޓަކާ އެކި ފަންޑުތަކުގެ ދަށުން އެކި އިދާރާތައް (މިސާލަކަށް ސްކޭލިންގ އަޕް އޮފް ރިނިއުއަބަލް އެނަރޖީ ޕްރޮގްރާމްގެ ފަންނީ އަދި ހިންގާ ކޮމިޓީ) އެކުލަވާލެވިފައި ވީނަމަވެސް، އެ އިދާރާތަކުގެ ދައުރާއި މަސްއޫލިއްޔަތުކުގެ މަޢުލޫމާތު ލިބެނީ ތުންތުން މަތިން އިވޭ ވާހަކަތަކުންނާއި މީޑިއާ ރިޕޯޓްތަކުގެ ޒަރިއްޔާއިން އެކަންޏެވެ. އެހެންކަމުން، އާންމުންގެ އިތުބާރު އިތުރުކުރުމަށާއި މަސްލަހަތު ފުށުއެރުންފަދަ ކަންކަން ނުހިމެނޭކަން ޔަޤީންކޮށްދިނުމަށްޓަކައި ނިންމުންތައް ނިންމުމުގައި ހާމަކަން ބޮޑު ސިޔާސަތެއް ގެންގުޅެއް ޖެހެއެވެ

ރައްޔިތުންގެ ބައިވެރިވުން ފުޅާކުރުން

މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކާ ގުޅިގެން ކުރެވޭ ޚަރަދުތަށް ކުރެވޭ ގޮތް ބެލުމާއި އެކަމާ ގުޅިގެން ހިންގޭ މަޝްރޫއުތަކުން ކުރާ ފައިދާ ވަޒަންކުރުމުގައި މަދަނީ މުޖުތަމަޢުގެ ދައުރު ވަރަށް މުހިންމެވެ. މި ޖަމްޢިއްޔާތަކަކީ މުޖުތަމަޢުތެރޭގައި، އާންމުންނާ ގުޅިގެން މަޢުލޫމާތު ބަދަލު ކުރުމާއި، ރައްޔިތުންގެ އަޑު އިއްވައިދިނުމުގެ މަސައްކަތްކުރާ އަދި ކުރަންތިބި ފަރާތްތަކެވެ. އެހެންނަމަވެސް މޫސުމާބެހޭ ސިޔާސަތުތަކަށް ނުފޫޒު ފޯރުވުމުގައި ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގައި، ހާއްސަކޮށް މާލެއާއި ދުރު ހިސާބުތަކުގައި ހަރަކާތްތެރިވާ ޖަމުޢިއްޔާތަކަށް، ލިބިފައިވާ އޮތް ޖާގައާއި ފުރުސަތު ހަނިކަން ފާހަގަކުރެވެއެވެ. އަދި މިފަދަ ޖަމްޢިއްޔާތަކަށް ބޭނުންވާ ގާބިލުކަން އެންމެ އެކަށީގެންވާ މިންވަރުގައި ލިބިދީފައިނުވާއިރު، މިހާރު ކުރިއަށްދާ ސިޔާސަތުތަކާއި މަޝްރޫއުތަކާ ބެހޭ މަޢުލޫމާތުވެސް އެންމެ އެކަށީގެންވާ މިންވަރަށް ލިބިފައިއެއް ނުވެއެވެ. އެހެންނަމަވެސް މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކަށް އެންމެ ނާޒުކު މުޖުތަމަޢުތަކުގެ ހައްޤުގައި އެންމެ ގާތުން މަސައްކަތްކުރަމުންދާ ބައެއްގެ ހައިސިއްޔަތުން، މިފަދަ ޖަމުޢިއްޔާތަކަށް ރައްޔިތުންގެ އަޑު އުފުލާ، އެމީހުންގެ ކަންބޮޑުވުންތަކާއި ޚިޔާލުތައް މޫސުމާ ބެހޭ ސިޔާސަތުތަކުގައި ހިމެނުމަށް ފުރުސަތު ދިނުމަކީ ނުހަނު މުހިންމު ކަމެކެވެ

ފާރަވެރިވާ އަދި ޖަވާބުދާރީކުރުވަން މަސައްކަތްކުރާ މުއައްސަސާތަކުގެ ޒިންމާއަ ދާކުރަންތަންދިނުމާއި އެޒިންމާތައް ރަނގަޅުގޮތުގައި އުފުލުން

މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކާ ގުޅިގެން ކުރެވޭ ޚަރަދުތައް ހިންގުމުގައި، ހިންގޭ ކޮރަޕްޝަންގެ އަމަލުތައް ތަހުޤީގުކޮށް މިފަދަ އަމަލުތައް ކުރިމަގުގައި ހިނގިޔަ ނުދިނުމަށް ގެންނަންޖެހޭ އިދާރީ ބަދަލުތަކެއް ގެންނަންޖެހެއެވެ. އެންޓި ކޮރަޕްޝަން ކޮމިޝަން ފަދަ ފާރަވެރިވާ އިދާރާތަކަށް، އެފަރާތްތަކުގެ މަސްއޫލިއްޔަތު އަދާކުރުމަށް ބޭނުންވާ ޤާނޫނީ ބާރުތައް ފުރިހަމައަށް ލިބިދީފައި ނެތުމާއި މިނިވަންކަމާއި އެކު މަސައްކަތްކުރުމުގެ މާހައުލެއް ނެތުމުގެ ސަބަބުން އެފަދަ މުއައްސަސާތަކުގެ މަސްޢޫލިއްޔަތުތައް އަދާކުރުމަށް ދަތިވާކަމަށް ފާހަގަވެއެވެ. އެހެންކަމުން، މިދެންނެވުނު ކަންތައްތައް އިސްލާހުކޮށް ފާރަވެރިވާ އަދި ޖަވާބުދާރީކުރުވަން މަސައްކަތްކުރާ މުއައްސަސާތަކުގެ މަސްޢޫލިއްޔަތު އެންމެ ފުރިހަމަގޮތުގައި އަދާކުރުމުގެ މަގުފަހިވެފައި އޮތުމަކީ ކޮންމެހެން މުހިންމު ކަމެކެވެ. ހަމަ އެއާއިއެކު، ޕެރިސް އެގްރީމަންޓްފަދަ ބައިނަލްއަޤުވާމީ މުއާހަދާތައް މަޖިލީހުން ފާސްކުރުމުގެ އިތުރަށް، ދިވެހި ރައްޔިތުންގެ މަންދޫބުންގެ ހައިސިއްޔަތުން، މަޖިލީސް މެދުވެރިކޮށް މޫސުމަށް އަންނަ ބަދަލުތަކާ ގުޅިގެން ކުރެވޭ ޚަރަދުތައް ހިންގުމުގައި ބައިވެރިވާ ސަރުކާރުގެ އިދާރާތައް ޖަވާބުދާރީ ކުރުވުމުގައި ރައްޔިތުން މަޖިލީހުގެ މެމްބަރުން މިހާރަށްވުރެ ފުޅާކޮށް މަސައްކަތްކުރަންޖެހެއެވެ

ސޮއިކުރެވިގެން މިދިޔަ ތާރީޚީ އެގްރިމަންޓާއިއެކު، ރާއްޖޭގައި މޫސުމަށް އަންނަބަދަލުތަކުން ރައްކާތެރިވުމަށް ލިބޭ ފައިސާ ހިންގުމުގެ އޮނިގަނޑު ރަނގަޅުކުރުމަށް ސަރުކާރުން އިސްނަގައިގެން، ފައިސާދޭ ފަރާތްތަކާއި މަދަނީ ޖަމްޢިއްޔާތަކާ ގުޅިގެން އިތުރު ހިތްވަރަކާއި އެކު މަސައްކަތް ކުރަން ފަށަންޖެހިފައިވާކަމަށް މިޖަމްޢިއްޔާއިން ދެކެމެވެ

ނިމުނީ

Download the governance update here: Governance bulleting April 2016


A number of commentators and observers working in the area of judicial reform, including special rapporteurs on the independence of judges, ICJ commissions and local Non Government Organizations that have the judiciary within their ambit of concern have conducted surveys and appraisals of the Maldivian judiciary and have found numerous issues meriting serious attention. The purpose of this governance update is to provide the general public with a primer on some of the most important of these issues so that they are better informed and thus equipped to contribute to this important discussion.

*An earlier version of this governance update stated incorrectly that the year of the Democracy Survey is 2010. This version has been updated with the correct date of 2013.

Read the Governance Update


This month’s governance update will focus on legal proceedings conducted against Defence Minister Colonel (Retired) Nazim and Adhaalath Party leader, Sheikh Imran Abdulla. Both these cases are rife with issues warranting attention and concern. However, due to the fact that Sheikh Imran’s case has been given relatively little media coverage, it was felt appropriate that the section pertaining to him should be more extensive. TM was fortunate to be able to meet with a member of Sheikh Imran’s legal team to discuss the details of his detention and would like to thank them for their assistance.

Read the Governance Update 


In the coming months Transparency Maldives will be publishing a series of bulletins focussing on the judiciary of the Maldives. The purpose of these bulletins is to increase public understanding and awareness of the key judicial developments and issues in the country. We hope the information disseminated through these bulletins are useful for policymakers and members of the general public to understand the dynamics and challenges that entail the judiciary of the Maldives.
Read the preliminary bulletin on the Maldivian Court System.


The current Associations Act and regulations adversely affects the formation and running of civil society organizations due to the ineffective and bureaucratic system that does not distinguish between foundations, charities, sports clubs, NGO’s, CBO’s and federations and imposes one set of rules on all associations leading to administrative and governance difficulties; a legal framework from 2003 that does not take into account the expansive Bill of Rights enshrined in the Chapter Two of the 2008 Constitution of Maldives 2008; no provisions and systems in the current administrative and legal framework.

Work is underway in reforming the Associations Act in oder to develop and foster an enabling environment for the civil society to flourish.The governance, transparency and functioning of CBO’s will improve if the systemic issues in the regulatory framework are addressed.

Comments and recommendations on 2003 Associations Act addresses several legal issues with the 2003 Associations Act of the Maldives.


The National Integrity System of the Maldives is based on three compound structures of key institutions: the core government agencies of Legislature, the Executive and theJudiciary; the public sector agencies, the Civil Service and Law Enforcement Agencies;the Elections Commission and Anti Corruption Commission, Auditor General’s Office;the Media and the Civil Society Organisations, Political parties and private sectorBusiness.

The methodology and guiding questions applied for the research are developed by Transparency International and are based on the concept of a strong National Integrity System (NIS) to ensure a sustained and strong control over corruption in all areas of the society (Visit http://goo.gl/eALDRV to learn about the NIS concept).

The conceptual framework of the National Integrity System (NIS) stresses the role and interplay of a broader institutional framework of the State, including ‘anti-corruption agents in government, civil society, the business community and other relevant sectors, in ‘building [the] momentum, political will and civic pressure for relevant reform initiatives’ required to reduce and eliminate corruption in public service. Therefore, in assessing the National Integrity System (NIS) of the Maldives, it is important for the assessment to investigate that process, and the outcome of interplay between institutions. This study draws up conclusions and recommendations with due consideration to that interplay. Recommendations provided in this study should be read reflecting on the factors that affect this interplay and its outcomes.

Political bias created through intermingled political thinking and practices embedded in key political institutions, including the Legislature and the Executive, reduces the capacity of other institutions to function independently. Moreover, political bias embedded in the institutional framework further reduces the level of accountability, transparency and integrity functions of almost all the institutions.

The legal framework, starting with the Constitution that provides and guarantees basic rights of people in the Maldivian society, establishes a notable legislative framework for the good governance of socio-economic activities. However, the broader legal framework lacks adequate organisational structures and capabilities, and this weakens the adaptive efficiency of that legal framework to practically execute institutional tasks in the most effective manner. Further, this institutional weakness lies with weak historical institutions or traditionally transmitted historical undemocratic constitutional rules that are embedded in the current political system. The Maldives only created a democratic political system after the enactment of its first-ever democratic Constitution in 2008. Prior to that, the Maldives followed a Constitution that was built on pre-1965 monarchical practices, and encompassed a Constitutional Government with weak political institutions, vesting excessive powers in the rulers or policy-makers. Although the Constitution of 2008 created a democratic Constitutional Government, the traditionally transmitted undemocratic political practices are also embedded in the new politico-institutional framework, thus weakening the overall institutional framework, and leaving room for misgovernance and political malpractices. Hence, the political and legal institutions in place to govern the society are also weakened, reducing their capacity to create and uphold national integrity.

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National Integrity System Assessment, Maldives 2014


This document is produced by Transparency Maldives with the purpose of communicating and bringing to the attention of the international community issues of governance in the Maldives.

Attorney General files case against dissolution of small political parties

Attorney General Azima Shakoor has filed a case at the Supreme Court requesting it declare that existing smaller political parties would not be dissolved following the ratification of the new Political Parties Act.

 

A similar case was filed by the attorney general requesting a writ of mandamus against the Elections Commission to prevent dissolution of those political parties which failed to maintain the required 10,000 members as stipulated in the Political Parties Act.

 

The Supreme Court issued a temporary injunction against the Elections Commission ordering it to withhold the dissolution of political parties that did not have the required membership following the case.

Hulhumale’ Court bench not composed as requested Former Court Magistrate

Former Hulhumale Court magistrate Moosa Naseem told the Parliament’s Independent Bodies Committee that the Judicial Services had strayed from his request in composing the bench of Judges to reside over former President Nasheed’s case.

 

However, JSC had made the decision and had sent completely different names to the ones I requested. The magistrates I asked for were the most experienced and capable. I don’t know why they [JSC] decided otherwise, Naseem is quoted to having said.

 

He further refused to accept JSC’s decision to compose a bench excluding him while he was in charge of the Hulhumale Court, following the composition of which Naseem was transferred to the judicial sector in Alif Dhaal atoll.

AG appeals 15-year-old’s flogging sentence

Attorney General Azima Shakoor has appealed a court decision to sentence a 15 year-old girl alleged to be the victim of multiple cases of sexual abuse to 100 lashes on charges of fornication. The appeal had come about at a time where the government is considering legal reforms.

 

The girl was sentenced by the Juvenile Court after she confessed to authorities of having consensual sex with an unknown man during investigations into a separate case of abuse against the minor.

 

According to Azima the sentence had been appealed as the defence believes the child’s testimony had been taken in violation of the constitution and the charges had also been filed outside of the criminal procedure.

 

Petition website Avaaz.org had begun a campaign targeting the reputation of the tourism industry in protest over the sentencing of the 15 year-old. A petition launched on the same website against the sentence received over one million signatures within four days of launching.

 

Sources on the island Feydhoo revealed that concerns had been raised by islanders since 2009 that the girl had potentially been the victim of sexual abuse not just by her stepfather, but a number of other unidentified men on the island.

Transparency Maldives launches its Pre-Election Assessment

Transparency Maldives had on March 28, published a Pre-Election Assessment assessing the electoral environment and the challenges faced ahead of the Presidential Election of 2013.

 

The report identified various issues within the electoral legal framework such as the candidacy of former President Mohamed Nasheed, lack of monitoring of campaign financing, an extensive and entrenched culture of vote buying, and a media establishment set on fueling personality politics and further polarisation.

Artur brothers investing in the Maldives

Armenian brothers accused of being conmen and drug traffickers have linked up with various political figures to invest in the Maldives. The Armenians had been linked to a huge scandal in Kenya which eventually led to their highly controversial deportation.

 

A local media outlet KTN’s investigations team produced a daring expose of the cover-up that followed the seizure of Kenya’s largest ever cocaine haul in December 2004.

 

The channel further disclosed how several tonnes of the cocaine went missing; how the brothers were allowed to escape and how two State prosecutions were deliberately mishandled.

Other News

Former President Mohamed Nasheed’s legal team filed a case with the High Court regarding the deferment of the Hulhumale’ Magistrate Court criminal case against him until after the September presidential election.

 

The draft penal code bill has been amended to include punishments as prescribed in the Quran, such as amputation for theft.

 

Commissioner of Police Abdulla Riyaz said that the biggest aim of the Police is to apprehend serious offenders and remove them from society and emphasized its importance in maintaining stable daily lives and a stable election environment.

 

He also warned Police will not allow protests in violation of the right to assembly law and pledged to uphold the law under any circumstance.

 

Police arrested SunMV journalist for taking pictures outside the Justice Building after he contested claims by police that he could not take photographs without displaying press identification. The Maldives Media Council (MMC) and Maldives Journalist Association (MJA) have since condemned the arrest of the journalist, calling for all parties to refrain from actions that might hinder freedom of the press.

 

Parliament has scheduled a vote of no-confidence against Defence Minister Mohamed Nazim and Minister of Home Affairs Dr Mohamed Jameel Ahmed for April 8. A vote to dismiss Jumhoree Party (JP) presidential candidate Gasim Ibrahim from his position within the Judicial Service Commission (JSC) has also been scheduled for April 9

 

Please call Transparency Maldives Advocacy and Communication Manager Aiman Rasheed (790 8967) for questions and clarifications.

 

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This document is produced by Transparency Maldives with the purpose of communicating and bringing to the attention of the international community issues of governance in the Maldives.

 

Former Civil Service Commission President Fahmy’s Case

The Supreme Court on March 14, 2013, Thursday ruled the removal of former Civil Service Commission (CSC) President Mohamed Fahmy Hassan from his post by the Parliament as unconstitutional.

 

Fahmy filed the case at the Supreme Court alleging that he had been dismissed as President of CSC in violation of the constitution. Parliament in November had passed a motion to remove Fahmy from his post over allegations of sexually harassing a female employee with 38 MPs voting in favor of the motion.

 

The Parliament’s Independent Institutions Committee has also voted to reinstate Fahmy as the head of CSC.

 

Former President Nasheed’s Trial

The next trial hearing of former President Nasheed over the unconstitutional arrest and detainment of the Chief Judge of the Criminal Court Abdulla Mohamed has been scheduled for April 4, 2013, Thursday.

 

The European Union (EU) had declared that it would be difficult to consider the Maldives upcoming presidential elections credible unless former President Mohamed Nasheed is allowed to contest. The government had however criticized the statement by the EU as unacceptable and unfortunate.

 

Whilst, Speaker of Parliament and Judicial Services Commission (JSC) member Abdulla Shahid has accused the JSC of composing the bench of Judges residing over Nasheed’s case outside of its legal mandate.

 

Minister for Home Affairs Dr Jameel has claimed it is a religious obligation to bar former President Mohamed Nasheed from contesting the upcoming presidential elections, scheduled to take place on September 7, while speaking at rally held by the Progressive Party of the Maldives.

The government calls on the international community to not favor candidates

Minister of Environment and Energy Dr Mariyam Shakeela former acting minister for the Ministry of Gender and Human Rights called on the international community to not interfere with the internal matters of the state and favor a certain candidate at a United Nations Human Rights Council meeting.

 

She said that it is in the national interest of the Maldives to hold a free, fair and inclusive election in which all political parties, including small parties are allowed to participate and stressed that the government has no intention of preventing any party from joining the Presidential race.

Human Rights Ambassador labels Amnesty as biased

The Human Rights Ambassador of the President’s Office Ahmed Ibrahim Didi has accused international NGO Amnesty International of being biased and fabricating stories about the human rights situation in the Maldives and of releasing reports about the Maldives without conducting any studies or research.

The Anti-Corruption of the Maldives reveals corruption level in Maldives unchanged

The Ant-Corruption Commission of the Maldives has revealed that levels of corruption in the country have remained unchanged during the past year in its annual report.

Forgeries, fraud and dead people appearing on party membership forms

The Elections Commission (EC) has said it has noticed a rise of inconsistencies on membership forms submitted by certain political parties including forged documents, forms with false information and even forms filed under the names of dead people.

President ratifies political parties bill, 11 parties dissolved

President Dr Mohamed Waheed has ratified the Political Parties Bill which states that parties who do not meet the required 10,000 members will no longer be recognised as such in the Maldives.

 

Only five political parties remain that meets the requirements of the bill. They are the Progressive Party of the Maldives (PPM), the Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP), Adalath Party (AP), Jumhoory Party (JP) and Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (DRP).

 

The President also ratified the controversial Parliament Privileges Bill, which the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) claims will undermine the ability of Maldivian journalists to protect their sources.

Government opens Male’ Immigration Shelter

An immigration shelter intended to temporarily house unregistered and illegal immigrants is now up and running in Male’ as part of the government’s efforts to provide a more humane means of tackling immigration problems in the country.

 

With civil society, industry bodies and international experts continuing to raise concerns about the treatment and number of unregistered foreign workers in the Maldives in recent years, the country has come under increasing pressure to safeguard rights of migrants and curb people trafficking.

The Maldives has appeared on the US State Department’s Tier Two Watch List for Human Trafficking for three years in a row.

Human Rights Ministry sends orphans to mental disability centre without psychiatric evaluation

The Ministry of Gender, Family and Human Rights has admitted transferring two children from the Villlingili island orphanage Kudakudhunge Hiya to the Centre for People with Mental Disability on the island of Guraidhoo, without determining if they were in fact special needs children.

 

The Ministry confessed to transferring the 18 year-olds two of eight children sent to the Guraidhoo centre without a doctor’s consultation.

 

Please call Transparency Maldives Advocacy and Communication Manager Aiman Rasheed (790 8967) for questions and clarifications.

 

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This document is produced by Transparency Maldives with the purpose of communicating and bringing to the attention of the international community issues of governance in the Maldives.

President Nasheed’s Trial

Former President Mohamed Nasheed sought refuge in the Indian High Commission in Male on February 13, Wednesday following the Hulhumale Magistrate Court’s order to the Police to produce him in court for his trial over the unconstitutional arrest and detention of Judge Abdulla Mohamed in 2011. The order was issued after he had failed to appear at previous court hearings.

 

Nasheed had earlier asked to hold off his trial until after the Presidential Elections during a hearing on February 3 Sunday at the High Court, regarding procedural issues raised by his legal team at the lower court which had been appealed to the High Court.

 

The procedural points were initially raised at a Hulhumale Magistrate Court hearing on October 9, 2012 Tuesday. The High Court upheld the lower court’s decision over the matter. The former President left the Indian High Commission on February 23 Saturday after 11 days.

 

The Parliament’s Independent Bodies Committee had earlier probed into the constitution of the bench of Judges residing over Nasheed’s case appointed by the Judicial Services Commission as well.

Presidential Election scheduled for September 7, 2013

The Presidential Election has been scheduled for September 7, 2013 by the Elections Commission (EC) of the Maldives, with the commission citing possible financial difficulties due to insufficient budget allocation.

 

It is estimated that there will be 31,000 new voters this year with an additional 100 ballot boxes to be placed around the country for voting. The entire cost of the election is estimated is at MVR55 60 million. The Finance Minister has assured the EC that financial constraints will not impede the holding of the election.

 

The President of the Elections Commission warned that if Nasheed’s trial proved to be a tool to bar him from contesting the scheduled presidential elections, it would cast doubt over the integrity of the election.

 

The UK, US and the UN have also called for free, fair and inclusive elections.

The UN Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers claims Judicial Independence compromised by external interference

The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers, Gabriela Knaul who had visited the Maldives on a fact finding mission on February 16, Saturday claimed that Judges and Lawyers in the Maldives are not sufficiently independent from external pressures and influences.

 

Presenting her preliminary findings on the functioning of the justice system in Maldives, Knaul said there was insufficient dialogue, respect for the new constitution created in 2008, transparency and access to information, and accountability to allow the judiciary to function properly.

 

She criticized the appointment of Judges presiding over former President Nasheed’s case describing it as having been set up in an arbitrary manner outside the parameters laid out in the laws. She also spoke about the Judicial Services Commission, stating that the body is politicized and subject to external influence rendering it unable to function as per its mandate.

President’s Human Rights Ambassador calls on EC to dissolve MDP

The Human Rights Ambassador of the President’s Office Ahmed Ibrahim Didi called on Elections Commission (EC) President Fuad Thaufeeq to dissolve the Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP) accusing the party of being unlawful, committing terrorist activities and attempting to undermine the powers of the state.

 

Ibrahim Didi stated that he saw no reason for there to be dissenting political views while likening anyone who disagrees with the Police to criminals.

ACC launch investigation into 99-year Maamigili Airport lease

The Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) has begun investigating the 99-year lease of Maamigili Airport to Villa Shipping and Trading, local media reported.

 

The private airport is owned by Chairman of Villa Group and Jumhoree Party (JP) MP, Gasim Ibrahim. The airport had initially been leased to the JP presidential candidate’s Villa company for 30 years.

 

Former Minister of Transport Dr Ahmed Shamheed who was nominated as transport minister by JP was later removed from his cabinet post after extending the airport lease.

Foreign Ministry calls on to expedite measures against Human Trafficking

Maldives Foreign Ministry has called to expedite measures against human trafficking as Maldives is at a critical state in human trafficking index. The Foreign Ministry had started a blue ribbon campaign together with the media against human trafficking.

 

The Tourism Employment Association of the Maldives (TEAM) had earlier reported that corrupt immigration practices and the use of unregulated employment agencies by private and state employers are limiting efforts to curb abuse of migrant workers and prevent illegal practices such as retaining staff passports.

 

Meanwhile the Department of Immigration and Emigration revealed that it had caught and deported more than 100 people trying to enter the Maldives with fake passports during last year.

 

The Maldives has come under strong criticism internationally in recent years for the prevalence of people trafficking, and the country has appeared on the US State Department’s Tier Two Watch List for Human Trafficking for three years in a row.

 

Other Developments

The Maldives Police Service has said it is looking into a corruption case involving Deputy Parliamentary Group Leader of the opposition Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP) Ali Waheed, in collaboration with the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC).

 

Former Maldives National Defense Force (MNDF) Male Area Commander Brigadier General Didi, former (MNDF) Head of Operations Directorate Colonel Mohamed Ziyad and former Defense Minister Tholhath Ibrahim Kaleyfaanu denied charges levied against them by the Hulhumale Magistrate Court for the arbitrary arrest and subsequent detention of Judge Abdulla Mohamed, Chief Judge of the Supreme Court.

 

MVR 11.7 million (US$762,215) has been awarded to nine political parties from the state budget according to local media. Out of the 16 political parties registered at the EC, the nine that were awarded money include: Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP), Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (DRP), Adhaalath Party (AP), Maldives National Congress (MNC), Jumhooree Party (JP), Dhivehi Qaumee Party (DQP), Progressive Party of Maldives (PPM) and Maldives Development Association (MDA).

 

Criminal Court Judge Abdul Baari Yoosuf suspended over allegations of sexual misconduct.

 

The High Court has released the five people arrested in connection with a MVR 24 million (US$1.55 million) corruption investigation involving the Disaster Management Centre (DMC).

 

Please call Transparency Maldives Advocacy and Communication Manager Aiman Rasheed (790 8967) for questions and clarifications.

 

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